The Circle of Fifths shows all the relative minors/major key signatures for each of the twelve keys. It is called the Circle of Fifths because sharps increase and flats decrease as you go up a perfect 5th to the next key. The circle is less frequently referred to as the Circle of Fourths as it decreases in sharps and increase in flats as you go up a perfect 4th. Shown in this picture as going right for up a fifth and left for up a fourth. This is explained in greater detail in my book "Kevin Sullivan's Bass Harmony," along with teachings of all the intervals including the perfect 4 and perfect 5th. The major scale appears on the outside of the circle while the relative minor appears on the inside of the circle.